Heterozygosity. It’s Why I’m Concerned for Broad-Acre Permaculture

Over the last few years, I’ve watched and read of many people who have put in highly diversified, large scale orchards in the name of creating a commercial-scale food forest (or something to that extent). By “highly diversified,” I’m talking chestnuts, apples, grapes, hazelnuts, persimmons, paw paw, sea buckthorn, lonicera, black locust, etc. Some people call it “Agroforestry” while others are calling it “Silvopasture,” yet both of those systems traditionally involve the harvest of timber crops rather than fruit and nut harvests. The difference between a timber crop and a fruit crop is HUGE when it comes to planning out a landscape, and this difference alone is why I am predicting the economic hard times of many broad-acre permaculture farms. Employing some basic horticultural/orcharding knowledge to repair what has been overlooked is necessary in order to progress and evolve into a better agricultural system. This blog post is designed to air out my concerns and get people thinking about these overlooked topics in order to bring about faster innovation and success. Note:  This blog post is intended for future and potential commercial growers. Not homesteaders.

The reason why I’m predicting hard times? It’s called heterozygosity: Plants grown from seed may not exactly duplicate the characteristics of its parents. What does this mean? Well, let’s use apples as an extreme example… When you eat a red delicious apple and then plant the seeds, you will not get a red delicious apple tree.  In fact, if you plant the seeds from a red delicious, its offspring will produce entirely random results and you’ll likely get something very far from the looks and taste of red delicious. The apple might be green and tiny with a sour taste, or orange and triangular shaped with tastes of honey. The variability is huge, and that’s why we graft. Grafting is basically a form of cloning and every single red delicious apple tree grown in the world comes from the genetics of one single tree. (I’m not going to get into “sports” in this conversation).  

A small sampling of the shapes and sizes of apples, due to extreme heterozygosity

A small sampling of the shapes and sizes of apples, due to extreme heterozygosity

Diversity fuels sustainability and is a basic tenant of ecology, so planting out row upon row of the same grafted tree variety is not seen as a very ecologically-minded process. In fact, as we continue to graft the same thing over and over again (Just yesterday, I learned that 60% of all apple trees planted in New York State are Macintosh), we are hindering any co-evolution for disease and pest resistance and we growers become more reliant on chemicals to produce a crop as nature evolves around us and becomes increasingly resistant to what we throw at her.

The genetic characteristic of heterozygosity found in varying degrees across many, many tree crops is allowing  for a myriad of genetics that might stand up against the current coevolution of nature. In this light, many permaculturalists are advocating planting trees from seed in order to select for a diversity of genetics that will work with your site, climate, etc because that is one of the only ways we’ll create a truly healthy and sustainable agricultural system. Yet, this is agriculture and those of us farmers heading towards growing perennials on a commercial scale need to make a living doing this. Like, a living off the crops…not off of classes, workshops, speaking engagements, etc.

So, what’s the problem in growing food-tree crops from seed on a massive scale? Heterozygosity. You see, though you’re selecting for better genetics, you are also opening yourself up to a bunch of other unknowns about the tree…like when these fruits and nuts will actually ripen. In the case of apples, your ripening/harvesting window in certain areas can run between June and October. That’s a 4 month-long period!  Now, imagine that you just planted thousands of trees across broad acreage without paying ANY attention to when your crops will ripen. Imagine trying to harvest those crops with any sort of efficiency. Hint: It’s nearly impossible unless you have a huge crew of free labor.  And according to the Department of Labor, once your free labor has the skills to competently do a task, they must be paid minimum wage (or else you are breaking the law).

I once managed a 5 acre orchard with over 100 varieties of apples. These varieties were planted in a patch-work style across the orchard without much sense or order. During harvest, apples were ripening across the entire orchard rather than row-by-row and when I left that orchard, I learned to always clump varieties together that will ripen at the same time (or close). In doing this, you’ll save money in harvest costs, sanity, and also be able to actually provide a merchantable crop other than renting out your rows to finish your animals/other’s animals on an absurd amount of nuts and fruits.

In regular agroforestry or silvopasture systems, you are harvesting timber in addition to growing alley crops or livestock. Trees can grow at different rates, but if you planted them all at the same time, there’s a good chance you’ll be able to harvest them at the same time. That sort of planning ahead for timber crops should not be applied to tree-food crops and we need to stop pretending like it can.

A Silvopasture System For Timber

This is a fact: If you plant trees with intention of harvesting their fruit/nut crops for markets/value added without a harvest plan, you will be screwed when they come into bearing. 

In Central Asia,  edible”silvopasture” (harvesting apple/walnut trees for timber/firewood is illegal) is an integral part of their apple and walnut harvest. The basal area (term used to describe the average amount of an acre occupied by tree stems) of the apple and walnut trees in the forest allows for healthy pasture underneath the trees where livestock are grazed before and after the harvest. The results: You get an apple crop (home processing), a walnut crop (one of few ways to make money there), meat and milk products from livestock (to feed your family) AND the livestock are cleaning up the pre-harvest drops (usually full of pests), keeping the grass low for actual harvest off the ground, and eating the post-harvest drops/leaves (to get rid of pest and disease). These forests are rather broad-acre (thousands of acres) and are broken into parcels which people lease. Walnuts and apples don’t ripen uniformly within these forests, so having these small parcels leased to families ensures a complete harvest because their livelihoods depend on it.


Apple-Walnut “Silvopasture” in Kyrgyzstan.

Planning out a broad-acre planting of anything? Farmers, regenerative agriculture designers and permaculture designers heed warning.  It is very important to have your rows timed according to harvest if you or your client intends on making any money off the system. Stefan Sobkowiak of Miracle Farms has done a wonderful job of this in his permaculture orchard which has allowed for people to go in and pick a variety of different fruits from a single row. In the coming weeks, the rows change to account for ripening. He’s not on a broad-acre scale just yet and has integrated u-pick into his business plan, but it’s the same type of thinking needed for broad-acre perennial plantings.

I’ve seen a lot of pictures of a vast diversity of trees planted on contour swales, keyline, terraces, etc. People wanting to incorporate livestock into the mix have these grand visions of running livestock row by row to create fruit/nut finished meat. Now, wouldn’t that be nice if everything in that row ripened at the same time so you’d only have to send your livestock down that row once after harvest? You can also add some extra value to the scenario by listing off specific varieties (which have stories) that went into this meat.  That’s efficiency and truly forward thinking and planning.   It’s where permaculture and regenerative ag needs to be.

Some of you reading this might have this feeling of dread because you just planted out a acres of extreme, unharvestable chaos.  If you leave your landscape be, you won’t end up with the commercial perennial agricultural system you sent out to create that talks bushels per acre, yields, and everything else an investor or someone replicating your model should ask about. Instead, you’ll likely end up with a food forest preserve that you might be better off treating in the same fashion as those in Central Asia. The model of having others come in and lease parcels of your food forest to harvest isn’t a bad idea either. Perhaps some will consider this as a future model.

I’m interested in creating and using low-input management techniques to grow fruit and nuts in an ecologically savvy way that will change the face of current agriculture. I’m interested in bushels per acre, harvest efficiency, timing. When a corn-grown kid from the FFA wants to know bushel numbers and pricing for these agriculture systems, I want people to be able to present a serious and factual case for him or her to consider changing over.

How do you fix and prevent this?

Some questions to ask your landscape designer:

1.) How many bushels per acre of (insert crop) do you anticipate for harvest once this system is mature?

2.) Will these trees be planted in a way that will allow for a streamlined harvest rather than a hunt-n-peck scenario?

3.) What varieties of these fruits and nuts are you thinking of? Can you please give me harvest dates for these varieties in my area (or extrapolate)?

Tips for those of you who have an unharvestable situation:

1.) Start your research on ripening times for varieties/band your research with others/hire a consultant who can give you this information. Try to procure scionwood from people who have harvest information. There are 7500+ known varieties of apples out there. How much do you want to bet that a couple hundred of them ripen at the same time?

2.) Learn how to top-work or hire someone who is an expert to do it for you once you’ve found varieties suitable for your layout. Or, if you already have trees producing in a haphazard pattern on your landscape, start taking notes of when each tree is ripe and be prepared to top work them into a pattern that makes some harvesting sense.

3.) Planting from seed? Start reading up and learning about true plant propagation and breeding. You can get a good idea of what to plant out from your nurseryin a few year’s time with conscious breeding and innovative techniques.

4.) Encourage and support nurseries and individuals to venture off the beaten path and start really breeding/fruit exploring for low-input management techniques. Support their taking of notes.

5.) Don’t balk at these plant breeders for patenting a plant/tree which they’ve put many hours, dollars (from their own pockets) and observations  into in order to improve the agricultural system. That’s the cost of innovation. Heck, universities are doing it on tax-payer dollars.


12 thoughts on “Heterozygosity. It’s Why I’m Concerned for Broad-Acre Permaculture

  1. Your suggestions are important considerations and will likely work well (in an economic sense) for broad acre and commercial operations, and you specify that that is your intended audience. and so i hear you and welcome you. i also must say, in my honesty, that i am a small scale homesteader with similar goals yet on a different scale. in my case i am not looking for commercial uniformity, so i am seeing a specific lens on your writing piece. and i expect many others will feel the same. for small scale hand picked operations where plantings are done as living hedges, and mixed orchards of an acre or three per family, all of the harvesting and processing can be done by the household and community and hunt and peck is not a downfall but an increase in awareness and quality of life, precisely because it is diverse and complex and you have to pay attention and build a relationship to do it right…and because my goals are not to make a living off of the land but to be in a living relationship with the land… so in contrast to all of this, i am feeling here that your tone here is serious, strenuous and condescending, in an unpleasant type of way. i get that you are probably aware of this. because you are trying to convince people in your field to fix their mistakes. admirable. but what is not admirable is trying to commercialize life in any way. yes its got to make sense and be efficient, but turning the landscape into a living factory to be treated that way, might make you money and it also might not make you happy. so in all respect lets find a middle ground. especially since there are probably way more people reading this that want to have a good homestead, then are designing enormous orchards for rich clientele or family estates. ❤

    • The thing is, I’m only talking about broad-acre permaculture whose goals are to make an economic living off the land. Innovative agricultural systems that succeed on a large scale will do a lot of good in getting more land out of very destructive commodity crops. I’m not trying to put down any practices by homesteaders and actually, if everyone planted from seed and conducted home breeding programs, our regenerative commercial agricultural industry might be a lot further ahead. The landscape has changed from that of many highly diversified small family farms over 100 years ago to fewer larger farms. The larger farms tend to be in a perpetual fight with nature, and I’m here to say to those larger farms/orchards: let’s rethink our practices and make money off it it while improving the landscape. As a homesteader, your objectives are different from mine and that’s perfectly fine. I have to plan a landscape a bit differently than you, though, and that’s just the way it is for managing a larger scale. There’s room for us all

      • It’s a good article and your attitude is sane and reasonable. But I think you over state, (because that is the institutional knowledge of the industry) just how likely it is that the seed grown tree will produce useless fruit. I grow a lot of fruit trees from seed, and I sell them to urban dwellers because small flowering trees that let the light in in Winter are better suited to urban gardens than Eucalypts 🙂 I tell people that if birds come attracted by the fruit that’s a bonus and if they get fruit for themselves that’s a rare bonus. But I get a surprising amount of feedback from people saying that their apple, apricot, lemon, or avocado is doing well and the fruit is excellent. And that is my unexpected experience as well. Though I certainly wouldn’t advocate for people putting in a broadacre crop to buy their trees from me 🙂

      • Perhaps you misunderstood me. I don’t think that seedling fruit is of lesser quality (and nowhere in my essay did I mention this), but what I do think is that seedlings will produce a tree that is an unknown size and the fruits will become mature at an unknown time. The essay is a long way of saying: Hey, think about your fruit harvest efficiency because its important in making a living. The way to do this with seedlings is to monitor them first in a nursery or experimental orchard before planting out broadscale. I actually grow some trees from seed, but I wouldn’t dare plant them into an orchard plan just yet.

    • That’s what I was thinking too. There needs to be a lot more wild in an orchard, a lot more wild in a heart a lot more wild in the world if we are ever going to be “civilized’ again.

      • Absolutely! I’d just like to throw in that a wild orchard can be planned to make it economical. It’s about nursery techniques, learning from your trees (dates and such), and then rearranging. I hear so very little about the rearranging that is happening, so I thought I’d bring it to light

  2. Preach!

    Your description of the central Asian systems is beautiful. I’m curious as to why you think these sorts feudal land tenure arrangements are a bad thing? The tax incentives are here in the US for massive landholdings, and as a land manager, you get people paying you to perform intensive management on your property.

    • Oh, I totally didn’t mean for it to sound like a bad situation! Perhaps I’ll go in and edit that a bit to make it sound like another potential model worth exploring. Thanks for your comment!

      • Great thoughts – glad this came through the f.b. wall. You know the old timers planted apples willy nilly all around the hundred acre patch full of rocks, swamps, hollows and hills AND they used to walk out there with 4 gunny sacks a piece in early snows up hills both ways barefoot. Kids these days always taking the easy way out. Ha. Good content. Thanks for your work.

  3. Pingback: Heterozygosity. It’s Why I’m Concerned for Broad-Acre Permaculture | unconventional stories from a young apple farmer | WORLD ORGANIC NEWS

  4. This is excellent. Your tone is perfect. This is the difference between someone reading a book on the theory of permiculture and someone who is actually growing food for sale. Hobbyists, who like to read books and experiment, and who consider themselves, experts drive me nuts. – Diana

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